Species Accounts

Individual species account will be headed with the name of the species (scientific, English, Spanish, and Portuguese). Then, a series of sections follow.

Description.  Will give overall proportions (e.g., relative size, aspect ratio) and will provide detailed descriptions of all plumages, some of which will be illustrated with color photographs complementing the plates.  Identification traits will be stressed.

Behavior.  Flight actions will be described for active, soaring (if recorded) and gliding flights detailing position of wings and relative flapping rate.  Behavior when hunting—either in flight or from perches—will be mentioned if relevant to identification.  Type of perch may be noted, as well as whether or not the species perches in the open or inconspicuously.

Similar species.  Lists species that can be confused with individual plumages of the species in question and points out their difference.

Molt.  Details the timing and sequence of molt if known, with an emphasis on molt of flight and tail feathers.

Distribution and Range Map.  A brief synopsis of the world distribution of the species and an enumeration of the countries in South America in which the species occur, habitats used, and altitudinal range will be given here.  Four-color maps will show breeding and over-wintering (non-breeding) ranges, areas where the species is observed only during migration, and areas where the species is resident year round.  Subspecies’ boundaries will be indicated with trace (faint?) lines.  Arrows will be used to call attention to individual records away from known distribution, or isolated, small populations.  Areas where the species is thought to occur but has not been recorded will be noted.  For rarer species only individual records will be plotted discriminating those documented (museum skin, call recording, photograph or video), from undocumented sightings.  Standardized maps (focusing on regions of the continent or the continent as a whole) will include country and provincial or state boundaries.

Movements.  Type and timing of movements.  If no short- or long distance seasonal movements are known for the species, it will be listed as sedentary.  Important sites where migration has been recorded will be listed.

Taxonomy.  List recognized subspecies in South America and comment on recently proposed taxonomic changes.

Size and weight.  A table will present body mass, wing chord, and tail length for each sex and age class if known. 

References.  Provides a list of literature cited in the species account.